From the earliest days of the National Advisory Body, it was clear that the Government intended to concentrate public sector higher education into the polytechnics as a first step in the rationalisation of the whole HE provision in Britain. Colleges of Higher Education, which had a wider subject spread than diversified teacher training, but were too small to reach the critical mass of a polytechnic, were an unwelcome embarrassment. There was also a growing, if grudging, recognition that the location of the 1960s polytechnics reflected the map of 19th Century industrial Britain, rather than the needs of the 21st Century. From the beginning of the 80s, a group of CHE directors had lobbied Government, NAB, politicians and anyone who would listen, to further the claims of such regions as Humberside, East Anglia and Dorset. It became clear by the mid 80s that the only politically acceptable way we could achieve a polytechnic for what was, after all, the fastest growing, least well provisioned region in Britain, was by bringing together the competing claims of CCAT and EIHE. The opportunity came when the Government first began to signal its intention to give the major public sector HE providers their independence from Local Government. Immediately, in May 1987, discussions started with Ken Swinhoe, newly appointed to CCAT. It did not take long to realise that the work of the two colleges was largely complementary, or to win their wholehearted backing and enthusiasm. In those initial months, the embryonic plans could easily have foundered, were it not for the unwavering commitment of the senior staff of both institutions, and the support of a key civil servant in the DES.
By 1988, the preparations for merger were, of course, running in harness with the negotiations and restructuring associated with independence, the transfer of assets, the early discussions on the transfer of nursing and radiography, seeking delegated authority from CNAA, and pressing our united case for polytechnic designation. Time was of the essence - 1st April 1989, the date when Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology and Essex Institute of Higher Education were to become independent corporations, was chosen as the optimum merger date.
Plans were proceeding smoothly until July 1988, when it was proposed by Officers of the new PCFC that they would prefer to see a merger with an existing Polytechnic rather than the creation of a new one. The City of London Polytechnic, itself having major asset problems, was the preferred partner. Technically, the two partners would be incorporated separately at midnight on 31st March, acquire their assets and then, at one minute past twelve, agree to merge into one Corporation.
I do not believe anyone welcomed the notion of a tripartite merger - most of all because it diverted attention away from the East Anglian region, the starting point of the planning. However, for six months, we devoted precious time to it, only for City of London to pull out in December 1988, leaving the emerging Anglia only three months to set up the necessary structures for independence.
It was only when the detailed planning for independence started that we realised the full extent of our previous dependence on Local Authorities - most of all in the area of financial management. Because of the City of London diversion we entered January 1989 with no effective financial system, much to the consternation of PCFC.
Despite these setbacks, the merger did take place on time and Anglia was born although how, I doubt I shall ever know. The nucleus of the Polytechnic was created and already, back in 1988, fruitful discussions had started with Norfolk, Essex and Suffolk LEAs and with four of their major HE providers, to create the basis of a Regional Network which could begin to address the inadequacy of local HE provision across the four Counties.
Mike Salmon joined Chelmer Institute of Higher Education from North East London Polytechnic as Deputy Director in 1977, becoming Director in 1983.
[Back to Contents]
Steve Marshall has asked me to write a personal account of the events leading to the merger of CCAT and Essex Institute, which became Anglia. These days, I always do as a Pro-Vice Chancellor asks. What follows is a series of exciting events which you, dear reader, are now able to share, featuring two thunderbolts.
It must have all started at the interview for the CCAT Principal's job. Considering myself fairly battle-hardened after seven years at Slough, I nevertheless got a distinct sinking feeling when the final offer came. It was more or less in the form: "Your mission, Ken, should you care to accept it, is to save Higher Education in Cambridge!" After it had been clarified that this did not actually include Cambridge University, I took the point. It had to do with a hardening DES attitude towards numbers of students and mix of levels. But CCAT, as I saw things, was the best balanced college in the country, with real quality running throughout its various levels. Surely we could somehow keep it all going.
A few months later came thunderbolt number one, doubly life-threatening. For some reason one Friday morning, I came in by train to Marylebone, I picked up a Times Higher Education Supplement at the bookstall, and at a headline as I walked on to the station forecourt. Though I can't now remember its exact words, it was obviously what newspaper editors would call a good headline, because it grabbed my attention. The DES, it reported, was about to separate the higher education sheep from the goats by size and mix, and CCAT was definitely for the chop. A shriek of brakes, the gentle touch of a taxi bumper, and the not so gentle reproaches of its driver brought me to earth in the middle of the forecourt. At least I was alive, rather more than I could say at that point for CCAT's plans for the future. The trouble with the Times Higher is that it sometimes gets things right, and this time it was spot on. The DES had not, to be fair, gone solely for size (although there was ominous talk of `critical mass'), but it had definitely turned its face against the very mix which CCAT saw as a major strength.
The following week, while we were seeking explanation and clarification and any sort of consolation after the DES thunderbolt, an indignant Head of Department marched on my office waving a copy of the Cambridge Evening News. It contained an advertisment for courses being offered at Essex Institute of Higher Education. Was this not poaching of the first order, breaching all civilised understandings about College and Local Authority areas of recruitment? Well-fired up by everything that was going on. I phoned Mike Salmon, then Principal of Essex (whom I had not yet met), and used a Principal's version of the Marylebone taxi-driver's diatribe (similar vocabulary, less restrained). Mike was conciliatory, even apologetic, explaining that they thought we had no interest in Cambridge in the sort of work being advertised. He was right about this, but I fairly politely suggested that it was not the point. As the conversation reached a more reasoned level, we agreed that it would be useful to meet early to get to know each other's actual offerings and plans for the future.
So far as I was concerned three things came from that meeting. First, though the reasons were slightly different from those applying to CCAT it was clear that Essex was also seriously threatened by the new DES formulae. Second, there was a striking lack of overlap between the two college portfolios, and a great deal of complementarity. Third, I was sure that I could work with my opposite number. If we could put it all together, we would have something that could at least match most of the polytechnics. The distance between Cambridge and Chelmsford/Brentwood was of course a worry, but we believed that by having site-based programmes and ensuring that, in the few necessary cases, staff and not students would travel, it would work.
As discussions spread amongst staff, against all the understandable misgivings and suspicions, these three elements began to prove paramount: recognition of the threat from government policies, appreciation of the opportunities, and ability to work together. The Governing Bodies and Local Authorities were supportive, and murmurs of approval were heard from the CNAA, the DES and the funding agency. The came thunderbolt number two.
It arrived in the form of an unscheduled visit by a senior mandarin, who might have been calling in for coffee during the course of a review of offspring at some college of [Cambridge] University, as sometimes happened. But over the coffee cups he said, in sonorous voice, that it would be thought a good thing if we and Essex were to `explore' the inclusion of City Polytechnic in our merger proposals. Just like that: a third partner, nearly as big as the two of us put together, with the status of a polytechnic but with a lot of unresolved property problems. The three-way merger would have instant polytechnic designation, but there were overlaps in course provision which would lead to some painful rationalisation, and the need for new building would have taken up the funding body's capital allocation for the whole sector.
As talks among the three institutions started, co-operation at senior management level was good, but elsewhere all manner of tensions surfaced. I remember the distaste on the faces of CCAT staff representatives as the first joint meeting of the three governing bodies ran the gauntlet of a howling mob of City Polytechnic protesters. In the end it was the governing body of City which decided not to go ahead.
The effect of the withdrawal was like waking from a nightmare to a fresh dawn. The City experience had shown the merging of itself was not sensible, but throughout the exchanges the case for the CCAT/Essex plans had seemed to grow stronger. Now we were back on track, things moved ahead with even more goodwill and determination. So the rest is history: survival, growth, successful incorporation, polytechnic designation, and, what nobody foresaw, rapid transformation to Cambridge's second University. While, running alongside the merger, was the other success, the emergence of Cambridge Regional College.
But that's another story. Let me end this one, dear reader, by indulging in a touch of nostalgia, as I look back with some fondness on two players who vanished from the game: the Local Authority and the CNAA. They had their points. How many of you can conceive that at some time in the future you will be saying the same of HEFCE?
Principal CCAT 1-9-86 to 31-3-89,
Pro-Director Anglia 1-4-89 to 31-8-91
[Ken Swinhoe died of Leukaemia on 3rd August 1994.]
[Back to Contents]
The following, put together by Steve Marshall, relies heavily on a volume with this title, written by Roy Helmore CBE to mark the merger in 1989, and an earlier account of CCAT's first hundred years, by Harry Browne.
Cambridge School of Art opened at 9 Sidney Street on November 1st 1858, its foundation inspired by John Ruskin who was determined to rectify `sins committed against good taste' in Victorian England. It offered Classes for Ladies (Elementary and Advanced) and for Gentlemen (Advanced) in the morning; in the evening there was a Gentlemen's Special Class and an Artisan's Class. Artisans paid 2 shillings a month; Gentleman and Ladies 5 shillings. The School was maintained by voluntary subscriptions, fees and a government grant, and run by a committee of subscribers.
By 1862 the School had moved to special rooms in the Guildhall, where it remained until 1889 in which year the Technical Instruction Act was passed, largely a reaction to the need to respond to German competition and the appearance of industrial depression in the immediately preceding years. Cambridge Borough Council made an annual grant of £100 and built a small institute for technical education in East Road.
The next change in the School's status came with the passing of Balfour's far-sighted Education Act in 1902, which made the County Council responsible for Further Education. Despite this, the Borough maintained its grant, and still housed the School, which moved to a site in Collier Road in 1909. Following the 1914-18 war, the Education Act of 1921, reacting to Britain's changed status in the industrial world, reasserted the need for systematic technical education. By the mid-twenties, the Cambridge and County School of Arts, Crafts and Technology showed a different profile, as compared to Ruskin's original conception. There was still a strong Department of Fine Art, but also departments of Commerce, of Day Continuation Classes (providing courses for apprentices in building, printing and scientific laboratories), and of Arts and Technology.
Between the wars the School grew rapidly, extending its range of courses in response to the ravages of the Depression, and adding shire to its Cambridge name in 1932. By 1941 the Cambridgeshire Technical School claimed to be `organized to meet the industrial, commercial and aesthetic needs of Cambridge and the County'.
During World War Two the School carried out contract work for the Government and acted as a training department for the Ministry of Labour. The ending of the war saw a series of major developments. The Engineering Department ran a full-time course for Gas Engineers which was in many senses a pioneer for the sandwich course approach. GCE classes began in 1948. Degree-level work, based on London external degrees, followed shortly after, with Geography leading the way.
The great period of expansion came in the years between 1958 and 1974, under the leadership of Deryck Mumford.
Mumford, Principal from 1949 until 1977, exerted a profound influence on the development of CCAT - the title Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology was adopted in the late 50s - and on educational thinking nationally. An advocate of the full integration of academic and vocational education, post age 16, into `Junior Colleges'. Mumford was author of a paper `16-19, School or College' which, published by the Association of Technical Institutions in 1965, outsold all other publications of that body since its foundation in 1895. Mumford's vision provided the inspiration for the `seamless robe' approach adopted by CCAT, and led to the college becoming one of the country's leading examples of what many felt should have been the ethos of the polytechnic sector, the provision of Advanced and Non-Advanced Further Education in a mutually supportive network of courses.
Unfortunately, although many in high places paid lip-service to this approach, government policy since at least 1956 has tended in another direction. The 1956 White Paper `The Organisation of Technical Colleges' had proposed the concentration of advanced work into Colleges of Advanced Technology and Regional Colleges, categories to which CCAT failed to gain entry. A decade later, Polytechnics were established. Again, CCAT was refused admission to the club.
Despite these set-backs, CCAT enjoyed spectacular growth in all areas of its work, increasing its size three-fold in a sixteen-year period. A building programme helped the college cope with this growth though, as always before and since, it lagged far behind the need.
The growth in student numbers occurred across the full range of work - local, regional, national; craft, vocational and degree-level. But perhaps the most significant development of this period was the move from London external to CNAA degrees.
CCAT's involvement with degree courses had begun in 1950 with the Geography degree. Though students numbers remained small until the sixties, the range of provision expanded rapidly, so that by the time CNAA was established CCAT had a good basis to move forward rapidly. This it did with vigour, on the basis of a sound staff base established as a result of strong growth in A Level provision. Once it was sure CNAA was here to stay, CCAT validated its Modern Languages degree in 1969, Hum/Soc in 1971, Geography in 1972, and a range of other degree courses in the years which followed. By the time of Mumford's retirement in 1977 CCAT offered 7 degrees and a graduate diploma in Music, and had become one of the most substantial centres of degree work outside the polytechnics.
Deryck Mumford was succeeded as Principal by Roy Helmore, whose period of office was marked by what seemed an endless series of budget reductions imposed by the LEA, and threats to degree work from the concentration plans of central government. That CCAT survived this period with most of its courses intact, despite enforced staff reductions in some areas such as Printing, was in no small measure due to the skill of Roy Helmore.
However, by the time of Helmore's retirement in 1986, it was becoming clear that the `seamless robe' concept had become unsustainable. A new approach to NAFE funding at Shire Hall threatened the college budget. AFE funding levels depended on having a high proportion of AFE work. CCAT's mix, about 50/50, had become very bad news. Against this background Ken Swinhoe, the new Principal, courageously grasped the nettle of the need for CCAT to shed most of its NAFE work. The rest, as they say, is history, and some of it is picked up in Ken's and Tom Allcock's contributions.
Prof. Steve Marshall,
Pro-Vice Chancellor (Human Resources)
[Back to Contents]
In 1893 a major event in adult education took place in Chelmsford with the introduction of the first classes of Further Education. They were attended by some 50 students. These original classes were held in Crane Court. At the turn of the century the number of students had grown to nearly 300 thereby paying tribute to the original organiser, Mr. C. H. Baskett. Indeed so popular was adult education that larger premises were needed to house the activity. Under the Chelmsford Town Council plans were drawn up for a new centre in Market Road.
Lord Rayleigh (a Nobel Prize winner) laid the foundation stone of the first purpose built buildings for Further Education, in Market Road in December 1904. A fine Christmas present for the people of the town. Classes started in their new premises on October 2nd 1905. These were on the first floor of the building. The ground floor was given over to the new Chelmsford Free Library. Mr. Baskett became the first Headmaster of the newly titled Chelmsford School of Science and Art. This fine old building currently forms the East Block of the Chelmsford campus.
Rapid growth of the School took place and an expansion plan was only halted by the outbreak of World War One. Post war demand grew beyond all expectations and the Essex Education Committee decided that it would be best to extend the present building because of its central location. So in 1928 proposals were drawn up to reorganise the School and plan a new building. By 1931 Captain J.M. Donaldson, MC could open the new Science Block (now the Library Block) and the original building was purchased from the Chelmsford Town Council to continue the Art activities. In 1932 a Principal of the College was appointed, Mr. William Walter Wood with Mr. J. H. Hassall as Vice-Principal, the latter holding this post until his death in 1954.
The next milestone occurred in 1935 when the College was renamed The Mid Essex Technical College and School of Art - a proud title that it held until 1976. During the mid 30's many new functions were added to the College using land facing Market Road and Park Road. These were the opening of a Junior Technical School for Boys, a canteen and in 1936 a Junior Commercial School for Girls. During the Second World War development was entirely disrupted with the transfer into the accommodation of evacuated children and the diversion of many staff to training service personnel or War service. One of the Commerce Blocks suffered bomb damage in an air attack on the town but within a week the college was back in full operation.
Following the War once again the volume of work increased with a great emphasis on part-time study (something that continues to this day). Many changes were made now with the move of Building to `Dovedale' and the move of the Junior Technical work out of the College to form the Chelmsford County Technical School. A series of new Principals was appointed and among those holding the post were, Mr. W Garside, Dr. W Taylor and the longest serving of them Mr. C. E. Preston.
Post war building restrictions were eased in 1953 and further construction was planned to extend the College by the demolition of houses in Market Road and Park Road. The first of the new Blocks was finished in 1959 and fronts onto what is now Victoria Road South - the College's South Block. In 1962 further Blocks were opened facing onto Park Road, the present North Block and Building Block.
By 1960 the reputation of the `Mid Essex Tech' was so great that it recruited nationally as well as from Essex. A student Hall of Residence was an urgent requirement and so in 1964 one containing 70 bedrooms and communal areas was opened in nearby Rainsford Road. The Hall was called after the Mildmay family of Essex.
After many years of pressing a final (at least until the new Rivermead campus opens) building was added to the colleges stock at Chelmsford in 1972. This houses the Sports facilities and Student Bar.
Dramatic changes were outlined in the Government White Paper,
`A Framework for Expansion'.
So in 1976 the by now much loved and respected `Mid Essex Tech'
merged with the equally respected `Brentwood College of Education' to form one
of the new Institutes of Higher Education with Dr. Cyril Crane as Director.
These new colleges were to be a third force in advanced further education and
fill in the gaps in national coverage left by the Polytechnics. So once again
Market Road (now Victoria Road South) saw new names appearing on the educational
buildings. This time it was to announce the arrival of the Chelmer Institute of
Higher Education. Under the leadership of Dr. C Crane the new Institute soon
became an integrated unit offering a wide range of degree and professional
courses to students from Essex, East Anglia and nationally. The part-time
element was also retained and formed a significant proportion of people
attending the Institute. By 1984 it was clear that the national reputation of
the Institute demanded that a clearer geographic title be used to fix it in the
minds of potential students. `Where is Chelmer' they asked of career officers
who were recommending the Institute to them. After much discussion the new
Director of the Institution, Mike Salmon, decided that as the Institute's prime
focus was Essex it should adopt that title. The birth of the Essex Institute of
Higher Education took place and it was so successful that it soon sought
GERBIL (the Great Education Reform Bill, which became the Education Act)
transferred the Institute away from the
Local Education Authority
for the first time since its foundation in 1893.
At the same time the Institute merged with the
Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology
to form a prototype polytechnic in East Anglia, called the
Anglia Higher Education College.
The new large college had all the necessary qualities to seek
Its number of students (over 6,000
Full Time Equivalents) and the quantity of
advanced (degree level) work both allowed
it to meet the criteria for becoming a Polytechnic. The next landmark in the
Market Road education story was on
April 1st, 1989
when these changes took place under the Director of Anglia,
During the next two years major developments took place with the introduction of
modular course structures and credit accumulation and transfer. The student
numbers were put onto a growth track and should double before the end of the
century. ln line with its new regional role the college sought close
partnerships with the large colleges in its area and Norwich City College,
Colchester, Writtle and the Norfolk Institute of Art & Design became part of the
pattern of regional delivery. Many FE colleges also franchised parts of courses,
again adding to the diversity of provision for the people of Anglia.
It was not until May of 1991 that the final approval came through to make the
college into a Polytechnic and it adopted the title
took place to create a new student hall of residence at Cambridge
(Swinhoe House, named after the Principal of CCAT
at the time of merger) and a large extension to the
Helmore Block also at Cambridge, was started to
be ready for students in October 1992.
In June 1992 the Privy Council awarded university status to the Polytechnic and
it became the Anglia Polytechnic University.
July 1992 saw the decision of the Governors to bring into the university the
staff of a number of Schools of Nursing
to form part of the Faculty of Health, Nursing & Social Work.
That month also saw the first steps in the development of
a new site for Essex. The new site, at the corner of the Chelmsford ring road
(Essex Regiment Way) is to be on land once housing the famous RHP factory. It
will be developed into a riverside site with modern facilities.
Whatever happens, however, the University will continue to develop as a major
centre for the provision of vocationally relevant higher education in step with
the growth of the four counties of Anglia. Truly a People's University?
Professor Colin Harrison,
Dean, Faculty of Educational Services,
Pro-Vice Chancellor (Teaching & Learning)
1988 (updated in 1992)
The Library moved to the Queen's Building on the new
in 1994 and the block was occupied by the Law Department.
As of 2002 the building is known as East Building.
GERBIL (the Great Education Reform Bill, which became the Education Act) transferred the Institute away from the Local Education Authority for the first time since its foundation in 1893. At the same time the Institute merged with the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology to form a prototype polytechnic in East Anglia, called the Anglia Higher Education College. The new large college had all the necessary qualities to seek polytechnic designation. Its number of students (over 6,000 Full Time Equivalents) and the quantity of advanced (degree level) work both allowed it to meet the criteria for becoming a Polytechnic. The next landmark in the Market Road education story was on April 1st, 1989 when these changes took place under the Director of Anglia, Mike Salmon.
During the next two years major developments took place with the introduction of modular course structures and credit accumulation and transfer. The student numbers were put onto a growth track and should double before the end of the century. ln line with its new regional role the college sought close partnerships with the large colleges in its area and Norwich City College, Colchester, Writtle and the Norfolk Institute of Art & Design became part of the pattern of regional delivery. Many FE colleges also franchised parts of courses, again adding to the diversity of provision for the people of Anglia.
It was not until May of 1991 that the final approval came through to make the college into a Polytechnic and it adopted the title Anglia Polytechnic.
Major building took place to create a new student hall of residence at Cambridge (Swinhoe House, named after the Principal of CCAT at the time of merger) and a large extension to the Helmore Block also at Cambridge, was started to be ready for students in October 1992.
In June 1992 the Privy Council awarded university status to the Polytechnic and it became the Anglia Polytechnic University.
July 1992 saw the decision of the Governors to bring into the university the staff of a number of Schools of Nursing to form part of the Faculty of Health, Nursing & Social Work. That month also saw the first steps in the development of a new site for Essex. The new site, at the corner of the Chelmsford ring road (Essex Regiment Way) is to be on land once housing the famous RHP factory. It will be developed into a riverside site with modern facilities.
Whatever happens, however, the University will continue to develop as a major centre for the provision of vocationally relevant higher education in step with the growth of the four counties of Anglia. Truly a People's University?
Professor Colin Harrison,
He died in July 1995.
[Back to Contents]
The 1989 merger to form Anglia was undertaken to achieve Polytechnic status and so protect, preserve and, wherever possible, increase HE provision in East Anglia. CCAT and EIHE had previously decided to transfer their NAFE work to local FE colleges. I seek to remind or inform readers of the background to CCAT's transfer of students and courses to CCFE (now CRC). This transfer, with which I was closely concerned, caused a lot of anxiety and stress but was, I believe, both justified and inevitable.
In the mid-eighties Cambs LEA introduced a system of unit cost budgeting which identified the cost of each NAFE student place in its Colleges. It showed that NAFE courses cost a great deal more at CCAT than elsewhere. The mix of AFE and NAFE teaching at CCAT, `the seamless robe', resulted in higher graded, higher paid staff teaching fewer contact hours - so raising unit costs.
The LEA had to decide whether to continue to fund NAFE and CCAT - but at progressively lower rates - or to transfer it to the existing low-cost FE College in Cambridge, CRC. It had already supported CCAT's two applications for Polytechnic status and had endorsed the College's aim to become a major HE provider. Bearing in mind also the national developments Ken Swinhoe has referred to it was, perhaps, inevitable that the decision should be to transfer, by stages, CCAT's NAFE work to CRC. Incidentally this may have clinched the case for CRC's new building at Kings Hedges.
The transfer was made over a number of years and was a remarkable example of close co-operation between three parties, namely the Authority, CCAT (subsequently Anglia) which passed out of LEA control in 1989 and CRC, which left it in 1993. Relatively few staff were transferred to CRC, others took early retirement and the great majority were needed to sustain and meet the planned expansion in the HE provision. However some Departments took a great deal of FE work and subsequently found it difficult to replace it with HE in view of the weak economic climate and the national lack of student demand in their subject areas.
Many regret the passing of CCAT's `seamless robe' of provision which was nationally admired as a `flagship' contribution to education from the sixties to the eighties. I do not share that view for, as a lecturer, I found the very high contact hours which, in my department [Management and Business Studies] at least, were required to meet the demands of diverse NAFE teaching incompatible with the reading and research necessary for HE work. As the proportion of HE work increased over the years I felt more and more strongly that I could not sustain the standards which both FE and HE students deserved. However I know that many of my colleagues succeeded where I failed.
The financial consequences of `the seamless robe' affected CCAT and to a lesser extent Anglia for many years, perhaps they still do. NAB (remember that?) funded colleges such as CCAT with lower proportions of HE at lower rates in the curious belief that HE work would be partially supported by NAFE funding! Subsequently PCFC did little to remedy this and I doubt if HEFCE has done so. If the transfer had not taken place CCAT would not, I believe, have merged with EIHE. Its expansion in HE would have been limited and HE funding rates would have remained at the very low levels it endured under NAB. Its FE unit of resource would have been severely cut by the LEA and we would now have been faced not only by the current reductions in HE funding but also by further reductions in FE funding as FEFC sets out to establish a level playing field in NAFE funding nationwide. At a low level of course.
You will not be surprised to read that I regard the transfer to be as justified and inevitable as the merger and the formation of Anglia. As to the future someone has written recently `Don't let the b.........s get you down'. I refer, of course, to the Secretary of State for Education and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Good luck!
Vice-Principal CCAT 1-9-84 to 31-3-89
Director-Cambridge 1-4-89 to 31-8-92
[Back to Contents]
The present house at Danbury Park, built in 1831 by John Round, M.P. for Malden, and later to become the Palace of the Bishops of Rochester and St Albans, conceals far more than an appealing country rural outlook.
It is supposed that parkland at Danbury was part of Danbury Park as in the Domesday Book recording that the estate was taken from its Saxon owner named Arling and given to one of William the Conqueror's officers, Geoffrey de Manderville, whose descendants became the Earls of Essex.
During the fifteenth century Danbury was held by members of the d'Arcy family. In 1547 the present Lord d'Arcy did a deal with King Edward VIth and exchanged his property for the dissolved monastery of St Osyth, Clacton. King Edward granted the `Manor of St Clere, Heyron and Danbury Park' to William Parr, the brother of Katherine Parr, King Henry VIII's sixth wife. William Parr sold the estate to Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Queen Elizabeth Ist. [and founder of Emmanuel College, Cambridge].
Sir Walter decided to build himself an imposing home on the estate. The Terrier of 1560 describes the park and mansion:-
`within the manor is a park.... wherin towards the myddest.... is builded a fayre Lodge with dyverse houses of office and decent lodgings and orchard and garden.... Within the same are three large ponds, well stocked with Roche, Pyke and Perche and other Ffresh water Ffyshe....'
The estate was held by consecutive generations of the Mildmay family until the end of the seventeenth century and passed through successive owners until 1831 when the existing house fell into a state of decay. It was then sold by the executors of Lady Hilary to Mr John Round who pulled down the Mildmay mansion and built the present house.
[Back to Contents]
When Steve first asked me to write of my 'impressions' of the merger in 1989, I thought 'Goodness, that was so long ago, I can't remember it at all, Christmas 1993 seems an age away.'
However, having given it some thought since it is amazing the number of things that were happening around that time, i.e.:
I do recall certain other more parochial things, i.e.:
In fact, bearing in mind all the things that were different and everything that needed to take place, it is a wonder to us all that it did ever succeed!
Strategic Management Team Co-ordinator,
PA to Vice Chancellor
Trinity College of Music
There were discussions about a possible relocation from London to Rivermead or to the University of Surrey but Trinity's Governors decided in 1990 to remain independent and to relocate to new buildings in the centre of Bristol on land provided by the City Council.
[Back to Contents]
1989 1994 Staff Numbers FTE Staff Numbers FTE Academic Staff Academic Staff (including part-time (including part-time lecturers, lecturers, senior management senior management & & directorate) 550 Vice Chancellor's office) 616 APT & C Staff 330 APT & C Staff 445 Manual & Other Staff 100 Manual Staff 2 Other (Danbury Park Conference Centre) 22 Total 980 Total 1085 Student Numbers Student Numbers Full Time } 3134 Full Time 6429 Sandwich } Sandwich 126 Part Time 4156 Part Time 3761 Total 7290 Total 10316 Child Care Spaces Child Care Spaces Brentwood 38 Brentwood 38 Chelmsford 0 Chelmsford 26 Cambridge 20 Cambridge 25 Total 58 Total 89 Student Accommodation Student Accommodation Self-Catering Self-Catering Mildmay Hall, Swinhoe Hall, Cambridge 117 Chelmsford 102 Mildmay Hall, Chelmsford 102 Nightingale Hall, Cam. 69 Bridget's Hall, Cambridge 39 Places in University-owned Places in University-owned properties properties Chelmsford 62 Chelmsford 75 Cambridge 0 Cambridge 60 Brentwood 15 Brentwood 19 Places in properties Places in properties rented to the University rented to the University 1085 Chelmsford 0 Chelmsford 520 Cambridge 345 Cambridge 520 Brentwood 0 Brentwood 45 Total Bed Spaces 524 Total Bed Spaces 1566
[Back to Contents]